At one time, women could accept these changes as something inevitable in life after menopause. But they must not be forgotten that when the waist increases health risks also increase. Abdominal fat (especially visceral fat ) is a concern because it plays a key role in various health problems.
Location belly fat and its impacts
Generally speaking, abdominal fat is both subcutaneous and visceral :
Subcutaneous: This fat lies between the skin and the abdominal walls. You can grab the subcutaneous fat with your hand.
Visceral: the fat surrounding the abdominal organs. Visceral fat is out of reach of your hand (you can not grasp ). She finds herself buried inside the abdominal cavity (where she padded the spaces between the abdominal organs ).
Visceral fat plays a much more important role in the health problems that the subcutaneous fat.
As for the fat located behind the abdominal cavity called the retroperitoneal fat. It is usually counted as part of the visceral fat.
Various studies indicate that visceral fat is most associated with risk factors such as insulin resistance, which sets the scenery for type 2 diabetes. Visceral fat is also linked to metabolic disturbances and increased risk cardiovascular diseases. In women, visceral fat is associated with breast cancer and a greater need for surgery of the gallbladder.
Some studies suggest that the deeper layers of subcutaneous fat may also be involved in insulin resistance (in men, not women ).
Causes of formation and the increase in abdominal fat
Sedentary lifestyle: a lifestyle that lack of physical activity increase the mass of visceral fat,
Food: an unbalanced diet rich in calories, especially in the absence of physical exercise causes an accumulation of visceral fat ( since this mode of eating is to consume more calories than nobody burns )
Genetics: Genes determine whether some people are more likely to develop visceral fat than others,
Stress hormones: these hormones ( such as cortisol ) contribute to an increase in abdominal fat. We return to genetics and hormones in the next section,
Smoking: Smoking creates the same stress hormones.
Where to accumulate abdominal fat ?
Accumulated in the lower body (which then has a pear shape ) is subcutaneous fat (stored under the skin), while the fat accumulated in the abdominal region ( the body then has a form of apple ) is especially visceral.
Where fat accumulates a person is influenced by various factors, the most important are:
Heredity: scientists have identified a number of genes that help determine how many fat cells a person develops and where these cells are stored ( study published in the journal "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" in 2006). To summarize, any person may inherit a tendency to gain weight in the abdomen,
Hormones at menopause, estrogen production decreases and the ratio of androgens ( male hormones present in small amounts in women) on estrogen increases. It is a change that is linked to a greater mass of ventral fat after menopause, according to some studies. Some researchers think that the fall in estrogen at menopause is associated with a higher cortisol levels. But cortisol is a stress hormone that promotes the accumulation of abdominal fat.
Although a slowed metabolism and decreased physical activity contribute to overall weight when taking a person ages, note that these two factors do not influence the accumulation of visceral fat directly.
Measuring abdominal fat
As evidence of adverse effects of the ventral fat accumulate, researchers are trying to measure with the greatest possible precision, analyze its relationship with health risks, and to monitor changes that occur with age and weight gain or weight loss. Discover how massage rolling massage can help fight cellulite and slimming, click here.
Techniques most accurate measurement, namely magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) and computed tomography (CT ), are expensive and are not available for routine use. However, scientific research using this imaging measuring methods showed that the waist circumference ( at the outlet belt) reflects the amount of abdominal fat. See also Mass Index Adipose (IMA), considered a better measure than BMI by some experts.
The simple waist circumference has largely replaced the waist -to-hip ratio as an indicator of fat distribution, because it is easier to measure and almost as accurate. There is also evidence that waist circumference remains a better indicator of health problems that the Body Mass Index ( BMI), which indicates the total fat in the body (not abdominal fat ).
Recall that the waist-hip ratio is calculated by dividing the waist circumference measured at the narrowed by the measurement of the hip at the widest level. As an indicator of abdominal fat of a person, this measure is better than BMI. In women, the risk of heart disease and stroke begins to increase from a ratio of 0.8.
Also recall that the waist circumference is the easiest measure to check the abdominal fat. For this measurement, place a tape measure around your torso at the navel. Reduce breathing to a minimum and make sure not to pull the tape measure too tightly as to tighten the skin ( which would distort the measurement).
Among women with a BMI between 25 and 34.9, a circumference greater than 89 cm size is considered high risk. A study published in September 2006 in the journal "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition " found that women, a high waist circumference is associated with an increased risk of diabetes ( even when BMI is normal, placed between 18 5 and 24.9 ).
Since abdominal fat can be a problem despite a normal BMI, health examinations should include both the measurement of BMI and waist circumference. The relationship between the circumference of the size and health risk varies by ethnic group to another. For example, Asian women, a circumference greater than 80 cm ( not 89 cm ) size is already considered a health risk. Read also foods that help to have abs concrete, click here.
Abdominal fat is inevitable?
Fortunately, the answer is negative. Indeed, visceral fat located in the abdominal region yields readily to physical exercise and a good diet. By losing weight, the amount of visceral fat decreases and the health benefits are many: lower blood pressure, levels of "good cholesterol " higher rates lower "bad cholesterol".
Subcutaneous fat located in the abdominal region, often located around the waist ( the part you can pinch, often called the buoy stomach ) may be desperately difficult to move. But in people of normal weight, the subcutaneous fat is not considered as great a health threat as visceral fat.
In fact, a 2004 study in the medical journal "England Journal of Medicine " found that the removal of subcutaneous fat by liposuction ( up to 10.5 kg of subcutaneous fat sometimes removed ) in 15 obese women did not produce any beneficial effect on their measurements of blood pressure, blood sugar in the blood, cholesterol, or insulin reaction. While a weight loss achieved through a balanced and healthy diet and an appropriate exercise program triggers many changes that have positive effects on health. Discover the same time our tips for lowering fat in the body.
More specifically, what is the problem with abdominal fat ?
Body fat, also called the adipose tissue was once seen as simply a large stock of fat drops passively waiting to be used as energy ( by the body ). However, studies suggest that the fat cells, especially cells of abdominal fat, are biologically active.
It is more accurate to think of fat as an endocrine organ or an endocrine gland, producing hormones and other substances that can affect our health in depth. Recall that endocrine gland is a gland whose secretory product is discharged directly into the bloodstream without the intermediary of an excretory duct ( thyroid, adrenal, etc.. Are endocrine glands).
A hormone produced by fat and is leptin, which is normally secreted after a meal to reduce appetite. Fat cells also produce the hormone adiponectin, which influence the response of cells to insulin according to some experts. Although scientists are still deciphering the roles of individual hormones, it becomes clear that excess fat in the body, especially excess abdominal fat, upsets the normal balance and functioning of these hormones.
Scientists also know that visceral fat pump as chemical compounds called cytokines immune system (eg tumor necrosis factor ) that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by promoting insulin resistance and chronic inflammation weak. According to some researchers, these cytokines as well as other biochemical compounds, some of which are not yet identified, may produce deleterious effects on cell sensitivity to insulin, the blood pressure on the blood coagulation.
One of the reasons is the visceral fat may also be harmful to its location near the portal vein ( which carries blood from the intestine to the liver area ). Substances released by visceral fat, including free fatty acids enter the portal vein and travel to the liver, where they can influence the production of blood lipids. Visceral fat is directly related to insulin resistance, a cholesterol and LDL ( "bad" cholesterol ) above, and an HDL ("good" cholesterol) more weak.
The insulin resistance means that your body muscles and liver cells do not respond adequately to normal levels of insulin ( pancreatic hormone that transports glucose into the cells of the body). Glucose in the blood increases, raising the risk of diabetes. Overall, insulin resistance, glucose in the blood excess, excess abdominal fat, cholesterol unfavorable ( including an excessive amount of triglycerides), and hypertension are metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Excess abdominal fat is linked to several other disorders too. A European study of nearly 500,000 men and women found that in women, a higher waist-hip ratio 0.85 is associated with a 52% increase in the risk of colorectal cancer. Check out our tips for measuring the fitness in this article.
A long-term study on atherosclerosis conducted by researchers at Wake Forest University (USA ) found that even in people of normal weight, those with a waist-hip ratio above is just as difficult as those who have a higher carry out various activities in daily life (like getting out of bed or doing household ) BMI.
A greater extent size also indicates the development of hypertension, regardless of total body fat, according to a study carried out for 10 years on Chinese adults ( published in the journal "American Journal of Hypertension " in 2006). Finally, in 2005 a study presented at the annual meeting of the organization " Society for Neuroscience " found that elderly people who have big belly had poorer memory and less verbal fluency, even after taking into account the diabetes.
Visceral fat is dangerous because the liver metabolizes this fat, transforming cholesterol and circulating in the blood. This causes dangerous deposition plate and consequently a narrowing of the arteries. More abdominal fat you have, the more you have visceral fat and your risk of diseases mentioned above.
How to Lose Abdominal Fat?
Since visceral fat is buried deep in the abdomen, it may seem difficult to target. The good news is that visceral fat responds well to regular sports training program and a healthy diet. Exercises to slim the stomach or abdominal muscles can help to strengthen the abdominal muscles and make the flatter stomach. Apart from cosmetic surgery (such as abdominoplasty or liposuction of the abdomen ) to remove a portion of abdominal fat, you can do some things to reduce belly fat.
Things to do to lose the belly fat:
Exercise: do daily exercise of moderate intensity is the best way to lose abdominal fat. When you lose weight and tone your muscles, your belly fat is also reduced. In fact, you might notice that abdominal fat level is the first place to shrink when you start to exercise.
The amount and type of exercise you should do depends on your current activity level and your health goals. Talk to your doctor about proper workout program to promote good health and specifically combat abdominal fat.
Stay patient and do not expect to lose the belly fat overnight. Burn belly fat by integrating a lot of cardio to your routine if you do not see your abs. Choose biomechanically correct exercises to train the abdominal area, including crunch type exercises and avoid exercises " hip flexor " type.
Since you can not lose belly fat by doing exercises that specifically target this region (rather you need to lose fat throughout the body and strengthen the abdominal area ), the best way to exercise to remove abdominal fat rest of combining aerobics and weight training.
Several studies have shown that exercise is effective for weight lose belly fat. Talk to your doctor or a sports coach how to incorporate weight training sessions into your exercise routine. Do not only lead your abdominal, train your entire body ( including doing weight training ).
For aerobic training, do 30-60 minutes of cardio a day is enough. If you include this type of exercise to your daily life, it is even better. Try walking on foot or cycling from time to time to move to the desktop ( 20 to 30 minutes walk to go and then the same in return). Making Running is another great option that helps reduce stress and more.
As for the weight, know that increasing muscle mass will increase your metabolism and burn fat become much more efficient. Remember that women who do weight training will not become muscular as men ( women with no male hormones to grow bigger ). Strength training is essential to keep bones strong and firm silhouette. The abdominal exercise will help to tone and flatten your stomach, but not visually effective as visceral fat is not reduced.
Healthy Eating: change bad eating habits can help fight against abdominal fat. Read food labels (Part "Nutrition" ) and replace saturated fats ( bad fat) by polyunsaturated fat ( good fat). Increase portions of complex carbohydrates ( such as fruits and vegetables). Reduce intake of simple carbohydrates ( like white bread and pasta transformed ).
If you need to lose weight, reduce the size of your portions and your daily caloric intake. To make it simple, eat natural foods ( full of fruits and vegetables), low in fat, low in sugar, low in calories and in small portions every 3 or 4 hours in the day ( small meals but more often in that order, for example: breakfast, snack, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, supper ).
Try to focus on whole grains like whole wheat bread, brown rice, etc.. that bring a lot of dietary fiber ( which helps regulate the digestive system). When you consume these whole grains, do not forget to add some good fats ( like olive oil). Full drink water to stay hydrated and clean your body. Drinking enough water also helps control your appetite.
Tone your belly that you can not do exercises that specifically target abdominal fat to burn it directly, you can strengthen your abdominal muscles and get a flatter stomach. Classic pumps are not the most effective way to tone your stomach. Instead, use these exercises to target both deeper and lower abdominal muscles :
Deep abdominal muscles: target these muscles by doing the "draw the navel." First, lie down. Then let your belly drop breathing deeply. Exhale and at the end of your exhalation, gently pull your navel inward and up your spine. You should feel a stiffening around your waist, think of it as if you try to pass through a partially closed door. Hold for 10 seconds, then rest for 10 seconds. Make 9 more repetitions. During each effort, your spine position should not change and you should breathe freely. At the end, you'll be able to do this exercise standing. It is so subtle that no one should know that you 're doing,
Lower abdominal muscles: tone your lower abdomen by doing pelvic tilts and pelvic thrusts. To do a pelvic thrust, lie on the floor knees bent. Flatten your back against the floor by tightening your abdominal muscles and bending your pelvis slightly. Hold between 5 and 10 seconds. Repeat 5 times and made a series of 10 to 20 repetitions.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT ) : although there have good reasons for some women try TRH after menopause, lose abdominal fat does not belong. It is true that some studies have shown that postmenopausal women who take HRT are less likely to accumulate belly fat that postmenopausal women who forgo this therapy. However, other studies also show that there is no difference between the two ( that postmenopausal women taking or not). Meanwhile, questions about the risks and benefits of HRT persist. Talk to your doctor in detail the potential risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy before trying.